Report Card Credits

Introduction

Data Sources

Ecoregion

USDA Forest Service ECOMAP Team, 2005 Northern Region Geospatial Library.
Ecological Subregions: Sections and subsections of the conterminous United States, Cleland et al., 2007.

Text Sources

Time Line

USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-18, The southern Appalachians: A history of the landscape, Yarnell, S.L., 1998.

Photo and Illustration Sources

Bundled corn, American Indian settlement, ceramic vessels, European settlers on porch, standing chestnut bole, harvested spruce forest in Pisgah National Forest, File Photo, USDA Forest Service, Asheville, NC.

Biodiversity

Data Sources

Ecological Communities

NatureServe, Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 3rd approximation, Schafale and Weakley, 1990.

Lands Managed for Conservation

Southern Forest Land Assessment: A cooperative project of the Southern Group of State Foresters, Jacobs, J.R., Srinivasan, R., and Barber, B., Texas Forest Service, College Station, TX, 83 p., 2008.

Significant Natural Heritage Areas

North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Natural heritage program, http://www.ncnhp.org/.

Land Use

RENCI Engagement Site at University of North Carolina – Charlotte, NC, May, 2010.

Forest Fragmentation

USDA Forest Service, Research Triangle Park, NC, Kurt Riitters, Ecologist, June, 2008.

Text Sources

USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station-GTR-64, Human influences on forest ecosystems, 2003.
USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, GTR-728, National forests on the edge, 2007.
The Institute for the Economy and the Future at Western Carolina University, Western North Carolina population growth, Figure 1., Population changes 2010-2030, 2008. For uses of this study, population projection for Western North Carolina is based on five additional counties: Burke, Caldwell, McDowell, Polk, and Rutherford. http://www.wncpulse.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=109....

Photo Sources

Biodiversity Intro

Swamp pink: Katie Hicks

Community Examples

Small whorled pogonia, shortia, Frasier’s loosestrife, pale yellow trillium, Gray’s lily, Virginia spirea, spruce-fir forest, montane alluvial forest, acidic cove forest: Gary Kauffman
Santeetlah dusky salamander: Michael Graziano
Indiana bat: Traci Hemberger
Rich cove forest: Bill Lea
Carolina northern flying squirrel: John Mays
Grassy bald: Ed Burress

Land Use

Water: Bridget O’Hara, NEMAC
Agriculture, developed: Larry Korhnak, Interface South
Natural: David Cappaert, Michigan State

Lands Managed for Conservation

Federal: Katie Hicks
State and local: David Brown, NCDENR
Other conservation lands, other forestland: Larry Korhnak, Interface South

Production

Data Sources

Timberland Ownership

USDA Forest Service, National Forest Inventory Data Online (FIDO), custom retrieval for 18 counties, private and public timberland ownership (acres), 1984-2006.

Volume of Timber

USDA Forest Service, National Forest Inventory Data Online (FIDO), custom retrieval for 18 counties, volume of growing stock on timberland (billion cubic feet); average annual net growth and removals of hardwood and softwood growing stock on timberland (million cubic feet), 1984-2006 .

Timber Composition and Age

USDA Forest Service, National Forest Inventory Data Online (FIDO), custom retrieval for 18 counties, volume of growing stock by diameter class (million cubic feet), 1984- 2006.

Non-Timber Forest Products

USDA, Forest Service, National Forests of North Carolina, Total value of non-timber products sold in the Pisgah and Nantahala National Forests, Remington, D., Asheville, NC, 2005-2009.USDA Forest Service, Science update SRS-006, Special forest products: a southern strategy for research and technology transfer, February, 2004.

Biomass Production Potential

USDA Forest Service, National Forest Inventory Data Online (FIDO), custom retrieval for 18 counties, Forest biomass (dry tons per acre) and USDA, Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis, Remote Sensing Applications Center.\

Timberland Ownership

Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Program, The southern Appalachian assessment, summary report, July, 1996. North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Managing your forest, http://www.dfr.state.nc.us/Managing_your forest/consulting_foresters.htm, November, 2009.USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis, National Woodland Owner Survey, 2004. Preliminary results for North Carolina, Butler, B. J. and Leatherberry, E. C., September, 2005.

Timber Composition and Age

Forest Watch, Ecological Forestry, Early successional forest: too much or not enough? Lapin, M., September, 2002. USDA Forest Service Resource Bulletin, SRS-87, Forest statistics of the mountains of NC, Brown, M., 2002.

Non-Timber Forest Products

USDA, Forest Service, National strategy for special forest products, FM-713, Washington, DC, 2001.USDA Forest Service, Science update SRS-006, Special forest products: a southern strategy for research and technology transfer, February, 2004.

Biomass Production Potential

Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, Harvesting fuel: cutting costs and reducing forest fire hazard through biomass harvest, Arnosti, D. et al., June, 2008. USDA FS-899, USDA Woody biomass utilization strategy. Marcia Patton-Mallory, editor, 2008.
USDA FS SRS, Compass, What are we going to do with all that wood?, ed. Thinning the forest, boosting local economies, R. Rummer, Winter 2006, Vol. 1, Number 1.
USDA-FIA Recommended methodology for assessing forestry biomass for bio-energy utilization, Prepared for Services, Utilization, and Marketing Task Force, Southern Group of State Foresters, prepared by: Nathan McClure http://www.southernforests.org/documents/Methodology%20for%20Assessing%2....

Photo Sources

Tree Farm Sign, Anonymous Tree Farm owner, Grandin Tree Farm: Michael E. Cheek, NC Division of Forest Resources. National forest sign, sawn lumber, green fork lift, man in mill, rolling logs, log pile: File Photo, USDA Forest Service, Asheville, NC.

Ecosystem Health

Data Sources

Insects and Diseases

USDA Forest Service, National Forest Inventory Data Online (FIDO) custom retrieval for 18 counties, total volume of live trees by species for 18 counties: southern yellow pines, eastern hemlock, flowering dogwood, 1984-2006.
USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, NC, custom retrieval for 18 counties, outbreak years for southern pine beetle (1960 to 2006), hemlock wooly adelgid (1992 to 2006), beech bark disease (1993 to 2006), gypsy moth (1993 to 2007) Yockey, E., October, 2007.

Forest Fire

North Carolina Division of Forest Resources, Michael Creek, custom retrieval for 18 counties, location of fires, 1997-2002.

Severe Weather

Historical Tropical Cyclone Tracks 1851-2004, US National Atlas, www.nationalatlas.gov.

Elevation

LIDAR, NC One Map, www.nconemap.com.

Temperature and Precipitation

Oregon State University, PRISM Group.

Historical Temperature and Precipitation

USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Average derived from yearly average observations in Avery, Henderson, Macon, Madison, and Haywood counties (1893 to 2006), Moore Myers, J., Raleigh, NC, June, 2007.

Precipitation Pattern

Oregon State University, Spatial Climate Analysis Service, NOAA Cooperative Station
PHDI Graphs, Mera, R. NC State U, Raleigh, NC, January, 2008.

Climate Scenarios

USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Southern Global Change Program, Scenarios and water stress (HAD & CGC1): Ge Sun, et al., Impacts of multiple stresses on water demand and supply across the southeastern United States. , 44(6), 1441-1457, 2008.
State Climate Office of North Carolina, Climate Division Data. http://www.nc-climate.ncsu.edu/climate/climdiv.php#thumb.

Text Sources

Insects and Diseases

USDA Forest Service, Southern Region, Forest Health Protection, Southern Forest Health Atlas of Insects and Diseases, September, 2009. Journal of Forestry, The southern pine beetle prevention initiative: working for healthier forests, Nowak, J. et al., July/August, 2008.USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, Asheville, NC, Slowing the Spread of the Gypsy Moth, http://www.datcp.state.wi.us/arm/environment/insects/gypsy-moth/pdf/sts_....

Invasive Species

North Carolina State University, Fletcher, NC, Invasive plants and the nursery industry, Proceedings of the international plants propagators society, Bir, R.E., February 2000.USDA Forest Service and University of GA, Center for invasive species and ecosystem health, Non-native invasive species in southern forest and grassland ecosystems, http://www.invasive.org/.North Carolina Natural Plant Society, invasive exotic species list, compiled by Misty Franklin, 2006, http://www.ncwildflower.org/invasives/list.htm.USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Compass, Silent invaders of our southern forests, Spring, 2005, Vol 1, Number 2.

Forest Fire

University of Georgia, School of Forest Resources Extension Pub. FOR 99-010, Drought damage to trees, Coder, K. D., April, 1999.

Severe Weather

One North Carolina Naturally, partnerships in conservation, quarterly electronic newsletter, Western North Carolina hurricanes reveal opportunities in floodplain areas, Gibson, P., Fall, 2004. Atlantic Tropical Cyclones layer at http://www.nationalatlas.gov/mld/huralll.html.

Climate Change

US National Atlas, Raw data download, http://www.nationalatlas.gov/atlasftp.html.Climate Change and Forest Disturbances, Dale, et al., 2001, 51(9), 723-734.US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Policy (2111), 236-F-98-007q, Climate change and North Carolina, September 1998. USDA, Forest Service, In brief: climate change and water- perspectives from the forest service. FS-908. Washington, DC, 2008.

Photo Sources

Damaged tree: Norbert Frank, University of West Hungary, Bugwood.org
Mimosa: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Multiflora rose: Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
Oriental bittersweet: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Crimson fountaingrass: John M. Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Bugwood.org

Soil, Water and Air

Data Sources

Soil Formation

North Carolina State University, Department of Soil Science, Soil systems map of Western North Carolina, Daniels, R.B. et al, Tech. Bull. 314, 1999. Data transfer by Robert Austin, NSCU.
Soil Loss and Degradation (Acidic deposition)
USDA Forest Service, Asheville, NC and E&S Environmental Chemistry, Inc., Corvallis, OR, Model-based assessment of the effects of acidic deposition on sensitive watershed resources in the national forests of NC, TN, and SC, final report, Sullivan, T.J., B.J. Cosby, K.U. Snyder, A.T. Herlihy, B. Jackson, 2007, http://webcam.srs.fs.fed.us/pollutants/acid/index.shtml

River Basins in Western North Carolina

NC Wildlife Resources Commission, NC Wildlife Action Plan, NC river basins, 2005 http://www.ncwildlife.org/plan/WSC_WAP_Basins.htm

Atmospheric Deposition Impacts to Streams

USDA Forest Service, Asheville, NC and E&S Environmental Chemistry, Inc., Corvallis, OR, Model-based assessment of the effects of acidic deposition on sensitive watershed resources in the national forests of NC, TN, and SC, final report, Sullivan, T.J., B.J. Cosby, K.U. Snyder, A.T. Herlihy, B. Jackson, 2007, http://webcam.srs.fs.fed.us/pollutants/acid/index.shtml

Aquatic Species at Risk

USDA Forest Service, NFsNC, Federally listed aquatic threatened, endangered, and species of concern, pers. Comm. Kauffman, G., 2010

Water Quantity

USDI, Geological Survey, Surface-Water Data for the Nation, Estimated Water Use Summary, 1990, http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/swUSDI, Geological Survey, Surface-Water Data for the Nation, Estimated Water Use Summary, 2005, http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/sw

Introduction

USDA Forest Service, Asheville, NC and E&S Environmental Chemistry, Inc., Corvallis, OR, Model-based assessment of the effects of acidic deposition on sensitive watershed resources in the national forests of NC, TN, and SC, final report, Sullivan, T.J., B.J. Cosby, K.U. Snyder, A.T. Herlihy, B. Jackson, 2007, http://webcam.srs.fs.fed.us/pollutants/acid/index.shtml

Visibility

North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Air Quality, NC Division of Air Quality, Regional Haze State Implementation Plan, http://daq.state.nc.us/planning/RH_SIP_Imp_Plan_12- 17-2007.pdfJackson, W., pers. Comm., 2010

Ambient Air Quality (Particulates, Ozone, Growth of Trees)

Colorado State University, Visibility Information Exchange Web System, Fine particle speciation, http://views.cira.colostate.edu/web/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Air Explorer, Particulate Matter 2.5, http://www.epa.gov/airexplorer/USDA Forest Service, Region 8, Air Resource Management, http://svinetfc6.fs.fed.us/wqmsbeta/frameview.pht ml?winwidth=800&winheight=600&language=0 Ozone calculator, http://webcam.srs.fs.fed.us/tools/ calculator/index.shtml)
USDA Forest Service, Final report: Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative, 2002. US Environmental Protection Agency, Emissions monitoring, Clean air markets, http://www.epa.gov/ airmarkets/emissions/index.html

Sources of Air Pollution

US Environmental Protection Agency, Emissions monitoring, Clean air markets, http://www.epa.gov/ airmarkets/emissions/index.html

Text Sources

Geologic History

USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-18, The southern Appalachians: A history of the landscape, Yarnell, S.L., 1998.

Soil Formation

North Carolina State University, Department of Soil Science, Soil Systems of North Carolina, Daniels, R.B. et al, Tech. Bull. 314, 1999.Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Natural Heritage, 2006. http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIf.shtml
Western Carolina University, Dept. of Biology, University of North Carolina, Asheville, Dept. of Environmental Studies, Vascular flora of a southern Appalachian fen and floodplain complex, Warren, R.J., et al, Castanea, Vol. 69., No.2, 2004. A nature guide to northwest NC, Skeate, S., Parkway Publishers, Boone, NC, 2004.

Soil Loss and Degradation (Erosion and Sedimentation)

North Carolina Department of Environment, The Division of Land Resources, Sedimentation Pollution Control Act of 1973, http://www.dlr.enr.state.nc.us/pages/sedimentpollutioncontrol.htmlNorth Carolina Division of Forest Resources, North Carolina Forest Practice Guidelines Related to Water Quality, Leaflet WQ-1 December, 2007, http://www.dfr.state.nc.us/publications/Forestry%20Leaflets/ WQ01.pdf
North Carolina Forest Service, Best management practices: quick reference field guide. http://dfr.nc.gov/publications/WQ0407/01%2002%20Chapters%20Field%20Guide... Carolina State University, Department of Soil Science, http://www.soil.ncsu.edu/about/publications.php
North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Land Quality Section, Soil Facts, North Carolina Erosion and Sedimentation Control Program, http://www.soil.ncsu.edu/publications/Soilfacts/AG-439-32/#BasicMandator...

Soil Loss and Degradation (Roads, Steep slopes, Landslides, Acidic deposition)

USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Determining the Range of Acceptable Forest Road Erosion, Grace, J.M., American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, Meeting Presentation, Paper Number: 083984, 2008. http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/ja/ja_grace034.pdf
Canadian Geotechnical Society, 1st North American landslide conference, Vail, CO, Landslide hazards and landslide hazard mapping in North Carolina, Wooten, R.M., et al, AEG special publication 23, 2007. http:// www.cgs.ca/cgssociety/Boards%20and%20Committees/Committees/lanslides-com... by-akturner-aug-2007.pdf/view
North Carolina Geological Survey, Geologic Hazards in North Carolina – Landslides http://www.geology.enr.state.nc.us/Landslide_Info/Landslides_main.htm
USDA Forest Service, Asheville, NC and E&S Environmental Chemistry, Inc., Corvallis, OR, Model-basedassessment of the effects of acidic deposition on sensitive watershed resources in the national forests of NC, TN, and SC, final report, Sullivan, T.J., B.J. Cosby, K.U. Snyder, A.T. Herlihy, B. Jackson, 2007, http://webcam.srs.fs.fed.us/pollutants/acid/index.shtmlSoil Conservation
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Model ordinances to protect local resources, 2007, http://www.epa.gov/nps/ordinance/mol1.htm#sec3

River Basins and Health of River Basins in WNC

NC Wildlife Resources Commission, NC Wildlife Action Plan, NC river basins, 2005, http://www.ncwildlife.org/plan/WSC_WAP_Basins.htm
NC Wildlife Resources Commission, Basinwide Planning Program : 2002 Little Tennessee River, Basinwide Water Quality Plan, Water quality issues related to the entire Little Tennessee river Basin, http://www.wildlifeactionplans.org/pdfs/action_plan_summaries/north_caro...
North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Office of Environmental Education, Savannah River Basin, 2007, http://www.ee.enr.state.nc.us/public/ecoaddress/riverbasins/savannah.150...
North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Office of Environmental Education, New River Basin, 2007, http://www.ee.enr.state.nc.us/public/ecoaddress/riverbasins/new.150dpi.pdf
Clean Water for North Carolina, A River in Jeopardy: The Yadkin and Pee Dee Rivers of North Carolina, Carpenter, B. et al, October 2002, http://www.cwfnc.org/Yadkinreport.pdf

Atmospheric Deposition Impacts to Streams

USDA Forest Service, Asheville, NC and E&S Environmental Chemistry, Inc., Corvallis, OR, Model-based assessment of the effects of acidic deposition on sensitive watershed resources in the national forests of NC, TN, and SC, final report, Sullivan, T.J., B.J. Cosby, K.U. Snyder, A.T. Herlihy, B. Jackson, 2007, http://webcam.srs.fs.fed.us/pollutants/acid/index.shtml

Aquatic Species at Risk

USDA Forest Service, NFsNC, List of threatened, endangered, and species of concern, pers. Comm. Kauffman, G., 2010
Crayfish, Crandall, K.A., Fetzner, J.W., Crayfish conservation, http://crayfish.byu.edu/conservation.htm, updated, 2006
NC Wildlife Resources Commission, wildlife species & conservation, North Carolina freshwater mussels, 2010, http://www.ncwildlife.org/wildlife_species_con/wsc_fwmussels_endfish_mus...
Davidson College, Salamanders of North Carolina, Wilson, J. et al, http://www.bio.davidson.edu/projects/herpcons/herps_of_nc/salamanders/sa...

Water Quantity

U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1104, Inventory of Well Yields in Avery and Watauga Counties, North Carolina, Huffman,B.A. et al , http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1104/

Introduction

USDA Forest Service, Asheville, NC and E&S Environmental Chemistry, Inc., Corvallis, OR, Model-based assessment of the effects of acidic deposition on sensitive watershed resources in the national forests of NC, TN, and SC, final report, Sullivan, T.J., B.J. Cosby, K.U. Snyder, A.T. Herlihy, B. Jackson, 2007, http://webcam.srs.fs.fed.us/pollutants/acid/index.shtml

Visibility

North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Air Quality, NC Division of Air Quality, Regional Haze State Implementation Plan for North Carolina Class I Areas, http://daq.state.nc.us/planning/RH_SIP_Imp_Plan_12-17-2007.pdf
USDA Forest Service, NFsNC, Jackson, W., pers. Comm., 2010

Ambient Air Quality (Particulates, Ozone, Growth of Trees)

Colorado State University, Visibility Information Exchange Web System, Fine particle speciation, http://views.cira.colostate.edu/web/
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Air Explorer, Particulate Matter 2.5, http://www.epa.gov/airexplorer/
USDA Forest Service, Region 8, Air Resource Management, http://svinetfc6.fs.fed.us/wqmsbeta/frameview.pht ml?winwidth=800&winheight=600&language=0 Ozone calculator, http://webcam.srs.fs.fed.us/tools/ calculator/index.shtml)
USDA Forest Service, Final report: Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative, 2002.
US Environmental Protection Agency, Emissions monitoring, Clean air markets, http://www.epa.gov/airmarkets/emissions/index.html
USDA Forest Service, NFsNC, Jackson, W., pers. Comm., 2010

Sources of Air Pollution

Final report of the Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative, 2002.
USDA Forest Service, National Forests in North Carolina, Air quality trends in Western North Carolina, Jackson, W., pers. Comm., 2010

Photo Sources

Soil Formation

Western North Carolina soil order map: NEMAC

Soil Loss and Degradation

Case Camp Ridge Road: Dick Jones
Steep Slope Development: NC Geological Survey, DENR
Steep Slope Development: Patrick Parton, Haywood County
Map of Landslides: NEMAC
Landslide, Debris pile: NC Geological Survey, DENR
Average Sulfate maps: Bill Jackson, NEMAC

Water basins in Western North Carolina

Map of river basins: NEMAC
Total land in WNC river basins: NEMAC
Impaired river sections: NEMAC

Atmospheric Deposition Impacts to Streams

Buffering capacity for brook trout survival: Sullivan et al, 2007
Acid Neutralizing Capacity: Sullivan et al, 2007

Aquatic Species at Risk

Blotched Chub: Brett Albanese, GA DNR
Pygmy Salamander: Matthew Niemiller, http://www.herpetology.us/field_trips/2009/cherokee_national_forest_mo.html
Appalachian elktoe mussel, littlewing pearly mussel, noonday globe: Dick Biggins, US Fish and Wildlife Service
Smoky dace, Wounded darter: US Fish and Wildlife Service

Water Quantity

Average Water Withdrawals in WNC (million gallons per day), 1990: NEMAC
Average Water Withdrawals in WNC (million gallons per day), 2005: NEMAC

Visibility

Simulated visibility conditions in Joyce Kilmer-Slickrock Wilderness Area (1860, 2000-2004, 2018, 2064), Winhaze model (http://www.air-resource.com/resources/downloads.html)
Visibility Conditions at Shining Rock Wilderness: http://www.fsvisimages.com/image-library-start.aspx

Ambient Air Quality (Airborne Particulates, Ground Level Ozone, Nitrous Oxides)

Fine particulates: http://views.cira.colostate.edu/web/
Visibility, Shining Rock Wilderness Area: http://www.fsvisimages.com/image-library-start.aspx
Sensitivity of tree species to Ozone Exposure: SAMI, 2002
Hourly Average Ozone Exposures : EPA, 2002
Sulfur dioxide/Nitrogen oxide emission maps: EPA, 2002

Sources of Air pollution

Wet sulfate deposition, 1993, Jackson, W., NFsNC, 2010
Wet sulfate deposition, 2008, Jackson, W., NFsNC, 2010

Carbon Cycle

Data Sources

Carbon Storage in Western North Carolina, USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Forest Inventory Data Online (FIDO), EVALIDator 4.01 tool, http://fiatools.fs.fed.us/fido/index.html.

Text Sources

Introduction
U.S. Global Change Research Program. National Climate Change, “Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States,” 27, 2009, http://www.globalchange.gov/images/cir/pdf/National.pdf.
National Geographic, “It starts at home,” Miller, P., March 2009, http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2009/03/energy-conservation/miller-text.
Carbon Storage and Release
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Climate change-greenhouse gas emissions, Carbon dioxide, March 2010, http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/co2.html.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, EOS project science office, Earth observatory, The ocean’s carbon balance, Riebeek, H., June 2008, http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/OceanCarbon/.
U.S. Department of Energy, Fossil energy office of communications, How fossil fuels were formed, October 2008, http://www.fe.doe.gov/education/energylessons/coal/gen_howformed.html.
Carbon Storage in Western North Carolina Forests
Biotic and abiotic factors regulating forest floor CO2 flux across a range of forest age classes in the southern Appalachians, Vose, J.M., and Bolstad, P.V., Pedobiologia, 50:577-587, 2007.
Haida climate forest, general information on trees, carbon and climate, 2007, http://www.haidaclimate.com/content/view/28/34/.
Carbon Market in Western North Carolina
Exploring the feasibility of a local carbon offset market in western North Carolina, Chipley, S., Proceedings of the national conference on undergraduate research, University of Montana, April 2010.
USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, A description and comparison of selected forest carbon registries: a guide for states considering the development of a forest carbon registry, SRS-107, 2007.
The economic effects of climate change, Tol, R.S., Journal of Economic Perspectives 23(2), Spring 2009.
Market-based policy options to control U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, Metcalf , G.E., Journal of Economic Perspectives 23(2), Spring 2009.
Paying for avoided deforestation - Should we do it?, Sohngen, B., Choices: The magazine of food, farm, and resource issues, Vol 23(1), 28 (2008).

Photo and Illustration Sources

The Greenhouse Effect, U.S. National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change: A Detailed Overview of the Consequences of Climate Change and Mechanisms for Adaptation, http://www.usgrcp.gov/usgcrp/nacc/default.htm.
Global Average Temperature and Carbon Dioxide Concentrations, 1880-2004, Data source temperature: ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/anomalies/annual_land.and.ocean.ts; data source CO2 (Siple Ice Cores): http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ftp/trends/co2/siple2.013; data source CO2 (Mauna Loa): http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ftp/trends/co2/maunaloa.co2; graphic design by Michael Ernst, The Woods Hole Research Center.
Forests of western NC, USDA Forest Service file photo

Socioeconomic Benefits

Data Sources

Economic Trends in Western North Carolina

US Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, 1970-2000s, Average number of total jobs and wage rate per decade, Mera. R.
North Carolina State University, The Western North Carolina Economy: Overview and Challenges, The Harold and Mazie Jones Levenson Program on Growth and Change in Western North Carolina: Are We Ready for Change? Cherry, T.L.,2008
Appalachian State University, Center for Economic Research & Policy Analysis, WNC economic index, county unemployment rankings, Cherry, T.L., et al, July 2009
US Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis , Arts, Entertainment, Recreation Employment, 2001-2007
US Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, CA30, Regional Economic profiles, NC, 1998-2007.

Recreation Areas

USDA Forest Service, National forests in North Carolina, Internal annual visitation and receipt report, 2000-2009.

Recreation Use

Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, Sustainable tourism: the case of the blue ridge national heritage area, Stoddard, J.E., Evans, M.R., Dinesh, D.S., August, 2008
Total Visitation for the Pisgah and Nantahala National Forests, Blue Ridge Parkway, and Great Smoky Mountain National Park, 1985-2009http://usparks.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?zi=1/XJ&sdn=usparks&cdn=...

Development and Conservation

University of North Carolina, Charlotte, RENCI, Trends in land use and development in the Western North Carolina (2006-2030), 2010

Roundwood Product Output and Distribution

USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Forest Inventory and Analysis, Average volume of roundwood products by product and years, 1995-2007.
USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Forest Inventory and Analysis, Number of mill operations in the region, pers. Comm., Johnson, T., 2010

Arts and Craft

Billy Graham Training Center at the Cove, Spiritual Retreats, Spiritual Retreats, Pers. Comm., 2010
Find the Divine - Directory of Spiritual Retreats, Religious Retreats and Conference Centers, Retreat centers by state and region, 2010, http://www.findthedivine.com

Data and Text Sources

Paying for Forest Based Recreation

USDI, National Park Service in cooperation with the Blue Ridge Parkway foundation, Blue Ridge Parkway Facts, October, 2008, http://www.brpfoundation.org/parkway_facts.php#Facts1
National Park Service, http://www.nps.gov/grsm/planyourvisit/whyfree.htm
BlueRidgeNow.com, Congress seeks $75 million for Blue Ridge Parkway land purchase, staff report, January, 2010 http://www.blueridgenow.com/article/20100127/NEWS/100129811?p=all&tc=pga...
UNCA, The Blue Banner, Officials Aim to get $75 million for Blue Ridge Parkway, Brooks, K., 2010, http://www.thebluebanner.net/
National Parks Conservation Association, State of the Parks, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, 2004, http://www.npca.org/stateoftheparks/smokies/smokies.pdf
Asheville: Anyway you like it, Asheville Area Tourism Research, January, 2010,www.exploreasheville.com
Coloradoan.com, Public Lands Fees Creating a Dispute, Magill, B., May, 2010 http://www.coloradoan.com/article/20100524/NEWS01/100524001/Public-lands...
USDA Forest Service, National Forests in North Carolina, Designated Fee Areas, 1996
USDA Forest Service, National Forests in North Carolina, Carolina connections, 2009

Roadless Areas

The Southern Appalachian Forest Coalition, A Forest Link Report, Our Green is Our Gold, Economic Benefits of National Forests for Southern Appalachian Communities
The Southern Appalachian Assessment, Social Cultural, Economic Technical Report 4 of 5. Prepared by federal and state agencies, July 1996
Southern Appalachia Forest Coalition, Roadless Facts, Updated Jun 2009, http://www.safc.org/campaigns/roadless/roadless_facts.php
Mountain Express, North Shore Road settlement brings $52 million to Swain County, Williams, M., February, 2010

Value of Forest Products

USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Forest Inventory and Analysis, Average volume of roundwood products by product and years, 1995-2007.
North Carolina Agricultural Statistics, Forest, fish, and seafood income, 2007.
USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Research Triangle Park, TimberMartSouth, June 2010.
USDA Forest Service, NFsNC, Fact sheets, Payment in lieu of taxes, 2001-2009

Recycling

Asheville Citizen Times, Morrison, C., Buncombe rates 4th in state for recycling; resident’s attitudes, county programs get credit, 2010
North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, North Carolina recycling data sends mixed signals, May, 2009, nc_county_recycling_rates.pdf
Paper and wood recovery by WNC counties, 2009: pers. Comm., Mour, S., 2010

Text Sources

Economic Trends in Western North Carolina

US Department of Commerce, Bureau of Econonic Analysis, 1970-2000s, Average number of total jobs and wage rate per decade, Mera. R., 200
9North Carolina State University, The Western North Carolina Economy: Overview and Challenges, The Harold and Mazie Jones Levenson Program on Growth and Change in Western North Carolina: Are We Ready for Change? Cherry, T.L.,2008
Average wage rates, 1970s-2000s adjusted for inflation using consumer price index, 1975-2005, http://crisistimes.com/calculator.php
Appalachian State University, Center for Economic Research & Policy Analysis, The 2001 recession and WNC: Illustrating the urban-rural divide, Policy brief #1, Cherry, T.L., et al, January 2009
Appalachian State University, Center for Economic Research & Policy Analysis, WNC economic index, county unemployment rankings, Cherry, T.L., et al, July 2009

Recreation Areas

USDA Forest Service, WO History Unit, Research in the USDA Forest Service: a historians view: The Weeks act and eastern forests, West, Terry, 1991.
Asheville: Anyway you like it, www.exploreasheville.com
USDI National Park Service, Blue Ridge Natural Heritage Area, Heritage and history, attractions and destinations, www.blueridgeheritage.com

Development and Conservation

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Smart Growth, http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/about_sg.htm
The Conservation Fund, What is Green Infrastructure?, greeninfrastructure.net/content/definition-green-infrastructure
Land-of-Sky Regional Council, Linking lands and communities in the land of sky region, http://www.linkinglands.org/

Roundwood Product Output and Distribution

USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, North Carolina’s forest, 2002, Brown, M.J., New, B.D., Oswalt, S.N., Johnson, T.G., Rudis , V.A., Resource Bulletin SRS-113, 2002.
North Carolina’s Timber Industry; An assessment of Timber Product Output and Use, 1995-2007, Resource Bulletins SRS-18,39, 73,94, 112,127,156.
Internal Auditor, Auditing timber assets, Straka, T.J., June, 1995 http://www.allbusiness.com/accounting/methods-standards/509452-1.html

Arts and Craft

May we all remember well, vol.1, A journal of the history & cultures of Western North Carolina, Brunk, S., editor, 1997.
Western Carolina University, Hunter Library, Craft revival: Shaping Western North Carolina past and present, The crafts, the people, the collection, 2010, http://www.wcu.edu/craftrevival/index.htm
Handmade in America, Economic impact of the professional craft industry in Western North Carolina, 2010, http://s3.amazonaws.com/hia_user_files/files/12/original.pdf?1271338510
Foxfire 40th anniversary book: faith, family, and the land, Cheek, A., Nix, H.L., 2006
Asheville.com community news, Biltmore Industries Holds Distinguished Position in Asheville’s History, 1999
The roots of mountain music, Holt, D., 2002, http://www.davidholt.com/music/rootsmtnmsc.html
The heritage of western North Carolina: a collaborative database, Western North Carolina artists & illustrators to 1950, http://www.heritagewnc.org/WNC_artists/artists2.htm
Journal of Environmental Psychology, A qualitative exploration of the wilderness experience as a source of spiritual inspiration, Fredrickson, L.M., Anderson, D.H., 1999, http://www.ncrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/jrnl/1999/nc_1999_Fredrickson_001.pdf

Photo and Illustration Sources

Introduction

Historic Cabin Nantahala National Forest: Forest Service

Economic Trends in Western North Carolina

Average number of total jobs and wage rate: NEMAC
Arts, Entertainment, Recreation Employment, 2001-2007: BEA
WNC Population by county, WNC, 1970-2020: NEMAC

Recreation Areas

Whitewater Falls, Transylvania County, NC: Bill Lea
Picnic along Forest Heritage National Scenic Byway: Delce Dyer, NFsNC
Davidson River: Delce Dyer, NFsNC
CCC steps at Dry Falls: Delce Dyer, NFsNC
Map of Recreation Areas in Western North Carolina: NEMAC, 2010.

Recreation Use

Black Mountain Trail, Pisgah NF: Delce Dyer, NFsNC
Canoeing on Balsam Lake, Nantahala NF: Delce Dyer, NFsNC
Tourist Activity Preferences in BRNHA: NEMAC
Total Visitation on NF, GSMNP, BRP: NEMAC

Paying for Forest Based Recreation

Couple fishing from picnic site: Delce Dyer, NFsNC
Foggy View at Wayah Bald: Delce Dyer, NFsNC
Mountain Biking: Doug Byerly
Fee history in the Pisgah and Nantahala national forests: NEMAC

Roadless Areas

WNC Roads and Roadless Areas: NEMAC
Distance to roads: NEMAC

Development and Conservation

Map of areas changing from natural to developed, 2006-2030: NEMAC

Roundwood Product Output and Distribution

Total roundwood output in WNC, 1995-2007: NEMAC
Roundwood harvest: Tony Johnson, SRS
Number of wood manufacturing mills in WNC: NEMAC
Distribution of Softwood and Hardwood Products, 1995-2007: NEMAC
Loading Roundwood: Tony Johnson, SRS

Value of Forest Products

Value of Timber Products in WNC, 1995-2007: NEMAC.
Total forest products income by county, 2005-6: NEMAC
Payment in Lieu of Taxes and Total NF acres, 2001-2009: NEMAC

Recycling

Annual Recycling Rates by county, 2009: NEMAC
Paper and wood recovery by WNC counties, 2009: NEMAC

Arts and Craft

Hand sawn trees: DH Ramsey Library
Chairmaker: Bob Ruiz, NFsNC file photo
Shaving horse: NFsNC file photo
McCarter family making baskets (1930-1936): NFsNC file photo
Highlands String Band (1885-1888): NFsNC file photo
Musicians, circa 1930: NFsNC file photo
George Masa: NPS.gov
Photograph by George Masa: http://ashevilleart.org
Economic impact of craft industry in WNC: Sarah Jackson
Contempletive Moment: DH Ramsey Library
Spiritual Retreats in WNC: Sarah Jackson
Sunday Service on Wayah Bald, 1886: NFsNC file photo
Boys Camp: NFsNC file photo

Policy

Data Sources

Planning and Monitoring

North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Forest Resources, Forest Stewardship Plans, custom retrieval for 18 counties (number and acres), Michael Creek (1970-2007).

Public Participation: Cooperators and Concerns

National Forests of North Carolina, Public Affairs Office, Asheville, NC, List of public and private cooperators and their concerns regarding issues of sustainability in Western NC.
USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Questionnaire to Western North Carolina natural resource groups regarding issues of sustainability, Fox, S., January, 2009.

Text Sources

Private and Public Lands

North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Forest Resources, Forest stewardship plan program, http://www.dfr.state.nc.us/Managing_your_forest/.
USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, FS-865 Forest inventory and analysis strategic plan, a history of success; a dynamic future, January, 2007.
USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Eastern forest environmental threat assessment program, http://www.forestthreats.org/.USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, National forest health monitoring program, http://fhm.fs.fed.us/.
North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Forest Resources, Urban and Community Forestry, http://www.dfr.state.nc.us/Urban/Urban_Forestry.htm.
City of Asheville, NC, Street Services, Urban Forestry, http://www.ashevillenc.gov/residents/public_services/streets/default.asp....
USDA Forest Service, Southern Region, Land and Resource Management Plan, Amendment 5, Nantahala and Pisgah National Forests, North Carolina, March 1994.
http://www.ashevillenc.gov/residents/public_services/streets/default.asp....

Land Conservation and Protection

North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Natural Resources Planning and Conservation, One NC-naturally, http://www.onencnaturally.org/.
North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Natural heritage program, http://www.ncnhp.org/.
Blue Ridge Forever, Conservation vision, http://www.appalachian.org/blueridgeforeverinfo/ConservationVisionES.pdf.
NC Land of Sky Regional Council of Government, Linking lands and communities, green infrastructure initiative, http://www.landofsky.org/planning/p_linking_lands.html.
NC High Country Council of Government, Regional trail plans, http://www.regiond.org/images/regionaltrailsmap2.pdf.
NC High Country Council of Government, Regional water resources assessment and plan, Personal communication, Kelly Coffey, October, 2009.
NC Southwestern Commission Council of Government, Mountain Landscapes Initiative, http://www.mountainlandscapesnc.org/.
UNC Charlotte Urban Institute, Forecasting urbanization in the Carolina piedmont region, http://www.gis.uncc.edu/ospc/.
Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere, Brevard, NC, http://www.samab.org/
National Park Service, Inventory & monitoring program, southern Appalachian, http://www.nbii.gov/portal/community/Communities/Geographic_Perspectives....
Southern Blue Ridge Fire Learning Network, http://www.wiserearth.org/group/sbrfln, http://www.gafw.org/newsletters/2009summer_newsletter.pdf.
US, Environmental Protection Agency, geobook project, southeastern ecological framework, Decision support for ecosystem protection, http://geobook.sain.utk.edu/.

Aquatic and Terrestrial Wildlife

North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission, Wildlife action plan, http://www.wildlifeactionplan.org/pdfs/action_plan_summaries/north_carol....
North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission, Wildlife species & conservation, Wildlife diversity program, http://www.ncwildlife.org/give/WD_Projects.htm#volunteer.
USDI, US Geological Survey, North American breeding bird survey, http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/BBS/.

Water Quality and Quantity

North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, Water supply planning, http://www.ncwater.org/basins/.
North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, N.C. Division of Water Resources, Rules, policies and regulations, http://www.ncwater.org/Rules_Policies_and_Regulations/.
US Environmental Protection Agency, Monitoring and assessing water quality, http://www.epa.gov/owow/monitoring/monintr.html.
University of North Carolina, Asheville, The Environmental Quality Institute, Volunteer water information network, http://orgs.unca.edu/EQI/vwin.html.

Air Quality

North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Air Quality, AQMP workshop: update from North Carolina, Boothe, L., June, 2008,http://www.ncair.org/planning/AQMP_Presentation_06082009.pdf.
North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Air Quality, Planning and Attainment, http://daq.state.nc.us/planning/.
North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Air Quality, Ambient monitoring program, http://daq.state.nc.us/monitor/.
North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Air Quality, Air toxics program, http://daq.state.nc.us/toxics/.

Laws, Regulations, and Guidelines

North Carolina Cooperative Extension, Trees and Local Regulations in North Carolina,http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/forestry/ordinance/regulations.html#federal.

Photo Sources

Policy introduction

Workshop: UNC Asheville’s NEMAC

Aquatic and Terrestrial Wildlife

Red fox: Ronald Laubstein, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Bugwood.org
Deer, black bear, river otter: Terry L. Spivey, Terry Spivey Photography, Bugwood.org
Wood duck, blue grouse: Alfred Viola, Northeastern University, Bugwood.org
Raccoons: Johnny N. Dell, Bugwood.org

Water Quality

Mountain stream: Gary Kaufman
Straight piping sewage into stream: Riverlink
Sedimentation from muddy runoff: NCDENR
Mining activity: Jim Fox
Grazing near stream: Keith Weller, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org
Failing septic system: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, http://www.epa.gov/region09/tribal/success/04/communities.html

Air Quality

Red spruce-Fraser fir forest: Manfred Mielke, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Mountains and sky: Chris Evans, River to River CWMA, Bugwood.org
Coal fired power plants: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/ozone/areas/etscem.htm.
Automobile exhaust: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Ramp Management & Control: A Primer, Report No: FHWA-HOP-06-080, http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/ramp_mgmt_handbook/primer/primer.htm

General Reference

County Boundaries: NC OneMap, http://www.nconemap.com/
County Seats: US National Atlas, cities and towns layer, http://www.nationalatlas.gov/mld/citiesx.html.
Rivers: NC OneMap, http://www.nconemap.com/
Lakes: NC OneMap, http://www.nconemap.com/
Highways: US National Atlas, roads layer at http://www.nationalatlas.gov/mld/roadtrl.html
Interstates: US National Atlas, roads layer at http://www.nationalatlas.gov/mld/roadtrl.html
Corporate Limits: NC DOT, http://www.ncdot.org/
Council of Government: NC OneMap, http://www.nconemap.com/